ELECTRONICS OF IOT AND EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

ELECTRONICS OF IOT AND EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
2 YEAR 1 semester 12 CFU
Patrick LONGHI (3cfu)

Giancarlo ORENGO (3cfu)

Gian Carlo CARDARILLI (4cfu)

Luca DI NUNZIO (2cfu)

A.Y. 2021-22

A.Y. 2022-23

MODULI:

M-5519 – ELECTRONICS OF IOT (6cfu)

M-5520 – DESIGN OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS FOR (6cfu)MECHATRONICS

Code: 8039795
SSD: ING-INF/01

EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES:
The objectives of the course are:
1) to provide the tools to carry out a radio link assessment in a real application context.
2) learn the fundamental parameters of the antennas used in IoT applications
3) provide the tools to interpret the electrical diagram of the RF front end of a typical trans receiver.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
Provide the fundamental tools to understand the most advanced and updated content from publications, magazines, forums, blogs, etc., to always be updated on the state of the art.

ABILITY TO APPLY KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
practical radio link budget, electronic noise evaluation on receiver behaviour, installation effects of the antennas, understanding of key parameters of commonly used antennas in the targeted scenario, analysis of an RF transceiver block diagram

AUTONOMY OF JUDGMENT:
In the enormous amount of information that is available today to developers of IoT applications, the course seeks to develop in the student the ability to select the highest quality and most validated content.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS:
The final test is based on an oral exam in which the student illustrates a part of the module

LEARNING ABILITY:
The course aims to develop in the student the ability to independently learn new and constantly updated content because the knowledge acquired today soon becomes obsolete.

SYLLABUS:

(Longhi):

Introduction to radiating elements and their key parameters.
Ideal and practical link budget.
The effect of noise in electronic receivers, figures of merit and mathematical modelling. Receiver G/T.
Practical aspects of IoT RF systems
RFID
Radiating elements key parameters, gain, directivity, HPBW, nulls, radiation pattern, polarization, and input impedance. Some practical cases: the mono/di-pole family, microstrip antennas, parabolic reflector, wearables
Introduction to RF transceiver systems and key-components (switches, HPA, LNA, mixers, frequency generators).

(G.Orengo):

Summary of Digital Electronics: digital encoding of information, binary (fixed and floating point), hexadecimal and ASCII; operators and main logic circuits, registers and memories, programmable devices. Prototyping boards for IoT (Arduino, Rasberry), Systems on Chip (SoC), architecture of a microcontroller, description of the Arduino Uno board. Programming languages ​​(assembly, compiled, interpreted), structure of an Arduino sketch (libraries, setups, loops, functions, interrupts), programming elements in C (variables, math and logical operations, cycles, conditional statements). Use of digital and analog I/O ports (A/D conversion, PWM output). Synchronous and asynchronous serial communication modes, wired (USB) and wireless with Bluetooth, RF and WiFi modules. Remote control of electronic modules (sensors, dc stepper and servo motors, LED/LCD displays etc.) from portable devices (Windows, IoS), through applications developed in Processing and Python, and mobile (Android), through Apps developed with the MIT App Inventor platform. Internet protocols for device local/remote control through WiFi modules connected as access points/clients to web platforms or public/private cloud servers controlled by laptops and/or mobile devices.

(G.Cardarilli):

– Introduction to the Internet of Things (IoT) and embedded systems
– Wireless and mobile communications
– The Sensors
– Low power processing
– IoT and machine learning applications
– Future developments in the field of IoT and embedded systems

 

CONTROL OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

CONTROL OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS
2 YEAR
1 semester 9 CFU
Riccardo MARINO A.Y. 2021-22

A.Y. 2022-23

Code: 8039823
SSD: ING-INF/04

LEARNING OUTCOMES:

Ability to understand scientific papers on the control of mechanical systems

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:

Knowledge of dynamic modeling of mechanical systems. Knowledge of basic feedback control techniques for single input single output systems and of decoupling techniques for multi input multi output nonlinear systems

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:

Ability to simulate using Matlab Simulink complex controlled mechanical systems

MAKING JUDGEMENTS:

Ability to evaluate stability, robustness, and performance of a control system

COMMUNICATION SKILLS: Ability to present and discuss an autonomous design project

LEARNING SKILLS: Ability to fully understand a scientific paper on the control of mechanical systems

SYLLABUS:

BASIC CONTROL TOOLS
Bounded- input bounded- output linear systems. Pole placement theorem for controllable and observable linear systems. Luenberger observers for observable systems. Design of dynamic compensators for linear systems. Integral feedback control to reject constant disturbances. PID control. System inverses for minimum phase linear systems. The combination of feedback and feedforward control actions.
ADVANCED CONTROL TOOLS
Linear approximations of nonlinear control systems about operating conditions. The definition of region of attraction for an operating condition. Output feedback compensators with integral actions to control nonlinear systems about a given operating condition. Liapunov matrix equations to determine quadratic Liapunov functions and assess the region of attraction. The definition of the sensitivity transfer function and its properties. The gang of four: sensitivity, complementary sensitivity, load sensitivity and noise sensitivity functions. How to determine the robustness of a control loop using the gang of four functions. Bode’s integral formula and the limitations imposed by unstable open loop poles. Youla parametrization to design stable compensation. Kalman filters, Riccati equations and robust control design.

CONTROL DESIGN FOR MULTIVARIABLE NONLINEAR SYSTEMS
Relative degree for a single input single output nonlinear system. State feedback control design for input-output linearization. State feedback linearization when the relative degree is equal to the state space dimension. The definition of nonlinear inverse systems. Relative degrees or decoupling indices for multivariable (multi-input, multi-output) nonlinear systems. The definition of the decoupling matrix. State feedback control design for input-output linearization when the decoupling matrix is full rank using the Penrose pseudoinverse. State feedback linearization when the sum of relative degrees is equal to the state space dimension and the decoupling matrix is full rank.

CASE STUDIES OF NONLINEAR MECHANICAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
Control of bycicles, robots, vehicles and aircrafts

FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS OF SYSTEMS (block A)

FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS OF SYSTEMS (block A)
1 YEAR
1 semester 6 CFU
Marco Ceccarelli A.Y. 2021-22

A.Y. 2022-23

Code:
SSD: ING-IMD-13

OBJECTIVES

LEARNING OUTCOMES: The course aims to teach students the knowledge and tools that are needed to address the issues that are related to the identification, modeling, analysis, and design of multi-body planar systems in English language and terminology

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: modeling and procedures to recognize the structure and characteristics of mechanisms and machines

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: acquisition of analysis procedures for the understanding of kinematic and dynamic characteristics of mechanisms and machines

MAKING JUDGEMENTS: possibility of judging the functionality of mechanisms and machines with their own qualitative and quantitative assessments

COMMUNICATION SKILLS: learning technical terminology and procedures for presenting the performance of mechanisms

LEARNING SKILLS: learning technical terminology and procedures for the presentation of the performance of mechanisms


PREREQUISITES: knowledge of basic mechanics of rigid bodies and computation skills

SYLLABUS

Structure and classification of planar mechanical systems, kinematic modeling, mobility analysis, graphical approaches of kinematics analysis, kinematic analysis with computer-oriented algorithms; dynamics and statics modeling, graphical approaches of dynamics analysis, dynamic analysis with computer-oriented algorithms, performance evaluation; elements of mechanical transmissions.

BOOKS:

Lopez-Cajùn C., Ceccarelli M., Mecanismos, Trillas, Città del Messico
Shigley J.E., Pennock G.R., Uicker J.J., “Theory of Machines and Mechanisms”, McGraw-Hill, New York
Handnotes and papers by the teachers

POWER ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL DRIVES

POWER ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL DRIVES
1 YEAR 1 semester 9 CFU
Stefano Bifaretti
A.Y. 2021-22
Stefano Bifaretti (7cfu)

Cristina Terlizzi (2cfu)

 

A.Y. 2022-23
Code: 8039781
SSD: ING-INF/01

LEARNING OUTCOMES:
The Power Electronics and Electrical Drives course aims to provide a basic understanding of the power semiconductors, of the main electronic circuits used for the static conversion of electrical energy as well as the electrical drives. The student will acquire the ability to analyse and perform an initial sizing of power electronic converters, operating in either direct or alternating current.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
The student will be gradually guided to the knowledge of the functional characteristics and behavior of the main static power converters used, in particular, in
industrial applications, in Distributed Generation Systems and in power trains of electical vehicles. In order to improve the topics understanding, the use of Matlab-Simulink specific packages for the simulation of electronic power converters is illustrated.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
The knowledge acquired during the course allows the student to select the topology and size of the power converter in relation to the final design.
Different application examples, in particular devoted to distributed energy generation plants, uninterruptible power supplies and electric mobility will allow the student to improve his ability to apply the acquired knowledge.

MAKING JUDGEMENTS:
The student will be able to collect and process specialized technical information on power converters and verify their validity.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS:
The student will be able to relate with power electronics specialists in order to request the technical information necessary for the development of a project activity.

LEARNING SKILLS:
The skills acquired during the course will allow the student to undertake, with a high degree of autonomy, subsequent studies or apply for technical roles in companies working in the field.

 

SYLLABUS:

POWER SEMICONDUCTORS

Power Semiconductors employed in Power Electronics converters: Diodes, BJT, MOSFET, IGBT, Thyristors, Wide Bandgap Semiconductors).

Static and dynamic behavior. Thermal behavior. Conduction and switching losses.

Technical specifications provided by manufacturers’ datasheets. Driving circuits.

POWER CONVERTER TOPOLOGIES

Behavioral characteristics: unidirectional and bidirectional energy transfer, controlled voltage sources. Analysis method of power converters.

DC-DC Converters. Buck, Boost, Buck-Boost. Switching losses reduction. Average Model. Modulation techniques (PWM, PFM, PRM). Output voltage open-loop control. Closed-loop control. Current control.Half and Full Bridge DC-DC converters.

DC-AC Converters (Inverters). Half and Full Bridge DC-AC single-phase converters based on static switches. Three-phase converters. Modulation techniques. Selective Harmonic Elimination (SHE). Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM).

Rectifiers: Single-phase and three-phase diode rectifiers. Single-phase and three-phase force-commutated PWM rectifiers: topologies, voltage and current controls. Power Factor Corrector (PFC). Effects on grid side of power converters. Generalized power factor. Compliance with grid codes.
Isolated DC-DC converter.

ELECTRICAL DRIVES
Introduction to Electrical Drives. DC, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors and Induction Motors. DC motors model.

Power Electronics Applications

Power Converters simulation using Matlab-Simulink/Simpowersystem.
Photovoltaic Conversion Systems.
Power trains for electrical vehicles. Battery chargers.

 

ROBOT MECHANICS

ROBOT MECHANICS
1 YEAR (Blocks B|C)
2 YEAR (Blocks A)
1 semester 9 CFU
Marco Ceccarelli A.Y. 2021-22

A.Y. 2022-23

Code: 8039785
SSD: ING-IND/13

LEARNING OUTCOMES:

 The aims of the course are related to explaining the modeling and algorithms for the analysis and design of the functioning of robot mechanisms in terms of mechanical performance. The students will learn how to handle the mechanics of robot by acquiring skills in analyzing and design robots for manipulation tasks in industrial and service applications.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:

during the course, problems and characteristics of robotic systems structures and operations are presented to increase students’ knowledge and to allow them to understand problems and solutions in the specific area of ​​robotics

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:

Students are required to apply the characteristics and algorithms for the analysis of manipulations and robotizations of specific robotic systems for merit assessments and demonstrate specific presentation and discussion skills of robotics issues.

MAKING JUDGEMENTS:

Students are involved in the presentation of the modeling and in the discussion of the problems to learn to examine in an autonomous and critical way the problems of analysis of robotic systems.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS:

During the course, the students take part in the discussion of the presented topics and at the end of the course present a report of manipulation and robotization analysis of their choice.

LEARNING SKILLS:

During the course, the students are involved in the discussion for a continuous stimulus to verify the learning and presentation of robot mechanics. the learning achieved is also verified in the presentation of the elaboration of manipulation and robotization analysis of their choice

SYLLABUS:

types of robots and industrial and service applications; components, technical characteristics, and evaluation; analysis and evaluation of manipulative movements; types of manipulators; Denavit-Hartenberg’s notation; fundamentals of direct kinematics; workspace analysis, trajectory planning; fundamentals of statics and dynamics: modeling, actions, equilibrium conditions; equation of motion; fundamentals of the regulation and control of the motion; types and functionality of grippers; grasp mechanics: modeling, actions, equilibrium conditions; mobile service robots: structures and operation; parallel architecture robots; service robots for medical applications: structures and operation; preparation of performance analysis reports of a robot.

INTEGRATED SENSORS

INTEGRATED SENSORS
1 YEAR (Block A|C)
2 YEAR (Block B)
1 semester 9 CFU
Corrado Di Natale A.Y. 2021-22
Corrado  Di Natale

Alexandro Catini

A.Y. 2022-23
Code: 8039927
SSD: ING-INF/01

LEARNING OUTCOMES:

To introduce the student to the modern sensors technologies and their major applications.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:

To make the student in condition to analyze the sensor performance and to design simple sensors’ interface circuit.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:

Capability to select sensors for each specific application MAKING JUDGEMENTS:
Evaluate in the different contexts which are the most suitable sensors and evaluate the performance using standardized parameters set.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS:

Capability to write synthetic reports about the working principles of sensors

LEARNING SKILLS:

To learn how to solve sensors’ circuits in order to determine their performance and to optimally design sensor systems.

SYLLABUS:

Electronic properties of materials: semiconductors.

General properties of sensors;

Sensitivity and resolution.

Temperature sensors: thermistors, integrated sensors, thermocouples;
Mechanic sensors: Strain gauges: Introduction to MEMS: accelerometer, gyroscope, pressure and flow sensors;

Magnetic sensors;

Optical sensors: photodiodes and image sensors;

infrared sensors; interface circuits for resistive and capacitive sensors

INNOVATIVE MATERIALS WITH LABORATORY

INNOVATIVE MATERIALS WITH LABORATORY
1 YEAR 1 semester 6 CFU
TATA MARIA ELISA (1cfu)
COSTANZA GIROLAMO (1cfu)VARONE ALESSANDRA (4cfu)
A.Y. 2021-22

A.Y. 2022-23

Code: 8039786
SSD: ING-IND/21

LEARNING OUTCOMES:
The aim of the course is to provide an overview of novel materials recently developed and investigated for applications in mechanics, electronics, and mechatronics. Different types of materials are considered and described with particular attention on the preparation route, specific characteristics, and applications. Some of them are of basic importance for new technologies gaining increasing attention in industrial practice. The knowledge of innovative materials is strictly connected to the possibility and capability of designing new products.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
Deep knowledge of the metallic structure and their mechanical behavior; in particular knowledge of innovative materials for mechatronics applications; selection of conventional material or not as a function of application, structure and properties.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
Ability to define materials properties and the most suitable production technologies for the components realization; Ability to perform tests in laboratory; Ability to define appropriate treatments in order to obtain the suitable mechanical properties as a function of service conditions. Ability to select innovative materials; ability to evaluate innovative materials properties.

MAKING JUDGEMENTS:
Ability to investigate, select and choose metallic materials as a function of the application.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS:
Clear and correct expression, in English language, skills on the topics covered in the course.

LEARNING SKILLS:

Ability to face a new problem, know how to manage it and find functional and correct solutions. learning ability will be evaluated by exam tests and laboratory activities.

SYLLABUS:

Amorphous alloys: production and applications of metallic glasses as mechatronic devices. Alloys with mixed structure (nanocrystalline and amorphous).

Ultrafine grained (UFG) materials: microstructural features and production routes.

Nanoporous and mesoporous materials: structural characterization and properties. Their applications for energy and gas storage.

Porous materials: metal foams, Open and closed porosity (micro and macro). Classification according to size and shape of the pores.

Properties (sound, energy and vibration absorption, crash behavior) and production methods. Functional and structural applications: lightweight construction, automotive. Metal sandwich structures.

Functional and Smart Materials. Property change as a response of external stimulus: shape memory alloy (one-way and two-way shape memory), thermochromic, photomechanical. Energy conversion:

piezoelectric, thermoelectric. Phase change materials. Applications: mechatronic, energy. Functionally graded materials.

Additive Manufacturing Technologies.

Advanced composite materials: properties, applications, and their production routes.